US Constitution

Constitutional Principles and Founding Fathers

Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention (Library of Congress) ★★★★★
The Library of Congress Continental Congress Broadside Collection (256 titles) and the Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection (21 titles) contain 277 documents relating to the work of Congress and the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Items include extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, committee reports, treaties, and early printed versions of the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. There are two special presentations: To Form a More Perfect Union and The Work of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention. There is also a timeline and essay.
Notes of the Founding Fathers Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789


Alexander Hamilton Exhibition ★★★★★
This interactive site by the New York Historical Society features a timeline of Hamilton’s life, a narrated tour of the exhibition’s most prominent items, and the “Hamilton Log,” which takes students through nearly every week of Hamilton career with selected writings. Overall, this site is an excellent source of documents and information on the life of Alexander Hamilton.

ConstitutionFacts.com ★★★★★
ConstitutionFacts.com provides the entire text of the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence – and more. Of note are the insights into the men who wrote the Constitution, how it was created, and how the Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution in the two centuries. The interactive quizzes and games are fun. You can test your constitution IQ with an interactive quiz and see how you scored against others in your state and nationally, see which founding father you’d vote for, determine which founding father you’re like, and test your knowledge with the “Real or Fake?” interactive quiz.

Washington Papers ★★★★★
This electronic collection of papers by and for George Washington contains a staggering 17,400 letters and documents. Search keyword “Constitution” and you’ll find letters Washington wrote to James Madison about the Constitution.

NARA Exhibit Hall: The Charters of Freedom ★★★★☆
The National Archives offers a copy of the U.S. Constitution and biographies of the document’s fifty-five framers. The article “A More Perfect Union” is an in-depth look at the Constitutional Convention and the ratification process. “Questions and Answers Pertaining to the Constitution” presents dozens of fascinating facts about the Constitution.

James Madison: Did You Know? ★★★★☆
A short History.com video with good info on James Madison.

The Avalon Project: The American Constitution – A Documentary Record ★★★★☆
The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy offers a varied array of primary source documents. The American Constitution – A Documentary Record offers documents on The Roots of the Constitution, Revolution and Independence, Credentials of the Members of the Federal Convention, The Constitutional Convention, and Ratification and Formation of the Government.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook ★★★★☆
The Internet History Sourcebooks are wonderful collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts for educational use by Paul Halsall at Fordham University. The site and its documents are well organized and the breadth of materials is impressive. The Internet Modern History Sourcebook contains documents of special interest in the American Independence section on The Establishment of the American State, Commentators on America, Native Americans, and Slavery.

National Constitution Center: Education ★★★★☆
The National Constitution Center in Philadelphia is a non-partisan and non-profit organization dedicated to increasing public understanding of, and appreciation for, the Constitution and its history and contemporary relevance. Its Education section includes biographies of the 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and full text of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence It also offers offers lesson plans and resource guides and the opportunity to explore the Constitution through online games and interactives.

Interactive Constitution
This section enables visitors to search the Constitution by keyword, topic, or Supreme Court case.
Centuries of Citizenship: A Constitutional Timeline
This interactive timeline highlights key dates and events of the key dates and events from more than 200 years of American constitutional history.
The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden ★★★★☆
This Smithsonian site explores the history and operation of the American presidency. The exhibit displays more than 375 images of documents, paintings, photographs, buttons, posters, paraphernalia, and objects along with short texts explaining their significance.

Africans in America; The Terrible Transformation, 1750-1805 ★★★★☆
Part of PBS’s African-American Journey site, here you’ll find part one of a rich collection of resources — images, documents, stories, biographies, commentaries — on the experience of slavery in America. There is also a useful teacher’s guide and activities for students. See Part 2: Revolution: 1750-1805.

Archiving Early America ★★★★☆
A worthwhile commercial site for links to historical documents, biographies, and even on-line books on 18th century America. These archival materials are displayed in their original formats so they can be read and examined close-up and in detail. Of special interest is the Maryland Gazette containing George Washington’s Journal of his historic trip to the Ohio Valley. It is the only original copy privately held. Materials are free for personal use.

Early America’s Digital Archives ★★★★☆
The Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities has produced a searchable collection of electronic texts written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820. The Archive also features a collection of links to early American texts on the Internet. Open to the public for research and teaching purposes.

The American Colonist’s Library ★★★★☆
A massive collection of the historical works that contributed to the formation of American politics, culture, and ideals. Arranged in chronological sequence (500 B.C.-1800 A.D.). Go to Eighteenth Century Sources Which Profoundly Impacted American History. Very helpful collection of primary sources.

Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture (OIEAHC) ★★★★☆
The College of William and Mary and The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation founded the Institute of Early American History and Culture in 1943 and still jointly sponsor its work. The Institute’s full-time professional and support staff is responsible for a variety of valuable research and publication programs for scholars. Most services are fee-based but Uncommon Sense is a free online journal on early American history. Important site for serious scholars.

The Thomas Jefferson Digital Archive ★★★★☆
Though not present at the Constitutional Convention, Jefferson followed the proceedings closely. The Thomas Jefferson Digital Archive provides more than 1,700 texts written by or to Thomas Jefferson. The site also includes a biography of Jefferson and The Jeffersonian Cyclopedia, which organizes more than 9,000 quotes according to theme and other categories.

U.S. History.org ★★★★☆
The Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia has produced this fun and engaging site where you can enjoy a virtual tour of Philadelphia and visit Betsy Ross’ House. You can also learn why Pennsylvania is misspelled on the Liberty Bell and the story of the crack. There are several section that deal with the revolutionary war and you can learn about The President’s House in Philadelphia, Executive Mansion of the United States from 1790 to 1800 during Philadelphia’s tenure as the national capital.

Con Source ★★★★☆
ConSource.org explores the history of the United States Constitution and its Amendments and provides an indexed online library of constitutional sources, including the Constitution, the Federalist Papers, and more. Yet, much is under construction and several key sections have little information or resources.

The Constitution Society ★★★☆☆
The Constitution Society is a private non-profit organization dedicated to research and public education on the principles of constitutional republican government. It publishes documentation, engages in litigation, and organizes local citizens groups to work for reform. It offers a Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics, a Constitutional Weblog, and a Constitutional Examination.

Biographies of the Founding Fathers ★★★☆☆
Colonial Hall provides bios of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. The sketches of America’s founding fathers are taken from the 1829 book, Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence, by the Rev. Charles A. Goodrich.

Lesson Plans, Teacher Guides, Activities and more
Constitution Primary Set & Teacher’s Guide
This Library of Congress teaching set includes 18 primary sources accompanied by historical context, teaching suggestions, links to online resources, graphic organizer, and an analysis tool.

C-Span Classroom Deliberations
This excellent website provides lesson plans and research materials designed for engaging students in debates about current-events issues in the United States, such as the growing economic power of big tech companies and the reform of Presidential primaries and caucuses.

Alexander Hamilton Interactive Timeline
Videos and documents outlining significant moments in Hamilton’s life are expertly woven into this interactive timeline. Students can follow the founding of America while listening to the thoughts of Gilder Lehrman Institute historians, or peruse Hamilton’s most influential writings in their historical context using this excellent multimedia presentation.

Teacher Lesson Plan: Created Equal?
This Library of Congress lesson focuses on a few key concepts of the Declaration of Independence, beginning with the phrase “All men are created equal.” Students gain an appreciation of Thomas Jefferson’s efforts to deal with the complex issues of equality and slavery in the Declaration of Independence. Recommended for High school students.

The Constitution: Counter Revolution or National Salvation?
This LOC lesson plan encourages students to make critical observations on the nature of the U.S. Constitution. It is presented by the Library of Congress and includes multiple online resources for students. Intended for grade 11.

George Washington
Using letters from the Library of Congress collection “George Washington Papers, 1741-1799,” three units are designed to allow students to examine Washington’s leadership during pivotal events in early American history: the French and Indian War, the Federal Convention, and Washington’s presidency. A main goal is to understand both Washington’s role in early America and the reasons for his rise to prominence. Featuring pre-selected letters from LOC collections and focus questions to evaluate each document, the lesson promotes careful explication of the meaning and implications of primary sources. Designed for grades 8 to 12.

Debating the Constitution
This PBS gallery provides documents and images related to the creation of the Constitution and the discussions and arguments surrounding it; special attention is drawn to how delegates to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787 chose to address slavery. For grades 5-12.

C-Span U.S. Constitution Page
C-Span’s U.S. Constitution page provides a series of video clips related to constitutional issues. C-SPAN Teacher Fellow Joe Karb demonstrates how to access and use C-SPAN Classroom’s Constitution Clips teacher resources.

Bill of Rights Institute
If you haven’t discovered the Bill of Rights Institute, this should be an early stop on your lesson planning journey. They have a curriculum book with videos that is very useful, as well as a new book of lesson plans (Media and American Democracy) and an abundance of great stuff on their website.

Which Founder Are You?
A quiz from the National Constitution Center that allows students to match their personalities against those of the founding fathers.

Interactive Constitution
Students can explore the constitution by keyword, topic, or Supreme Court Case.

Bill of Rights Game
A fun way for students to test their knowledge of the Bill of Rights. They navigate through a cartoon town to discover the missing words from the Constitution.

State of the Union Bingo
A tool designed by the National Constitution Center to help students understand the President’s address to congress.

Constitution Center Blog
Daily blog posts and news headlines that have something to do with the Constitution and its impact on the latest current events.

Ben’s Guide to U.S. Government for Kids
This site by the U.S. Government Printing Office teaches K-12 students how the U.S. government works. Sections are divided into Apprentice (ages 4-8), Journeyperson (ages 9-13), and Master (ages 14+). Resources for teachers include curriculum links, related web sites, and more.

Ben’s Games and Activities
Lesson Plans: Constitution
Lesson plans for K-12 about various Constitution-related topics. Covers a variety of topics about the Constitution and the U.S. Government. See the following three lesson plans for an idea of what the site has to offer:

What Basic Ideas are in the Preamble to the Constitution?
This elementary school lesson plan introduces students to the famous opening words of the Constitution, asking them to take a critical look at the text to decipher just what it is that the Framers were talking about. The lesson aims to provide students with the ability to explain the overall message of the Preamble and a few of its most famous phrases.
Why Do We Need a Government?
This middle school lesson helps students understand how the Framers believed governments should be created and what they should do.
What Conflicting Opinions Did the Framers Have about the Completed Constitution?
This high school lesson plan describes some conflicting points of view of leading Framers about the Constitution. Most of the delegates argued for the adoption of the Constitution, although many had reservations about all or parts of it. The reservations of three were so serious that they refused to sign the document. The position of one of these Framers, George Mason, is explored in detail.
Bill of Rights in Action
This is the online archive of Bill of Rights in Action, the Constitutional Rights Foundation’s curricular newsletter. The Constitutional Rights Foundation seeks to instill in American youth a deeper understanding of citizenship through values expressed in the Constitution and its Bill of Rights, and to educate them to become active and responsible participants in American society. Each edition has a lesson (reading, discussion questions, and interactive activity) on U.S. history, world history, and a current issue. Lessons are balanced to present various viewpoints. Bill of Rights in Action has been published for more than 30 years and the Constitutional Rights Foundation has archived about 10 years of the newsletter.

Teaching With Documents: Observing Constitution Day
The National Archives and Records Administration celebrates Constitution Day by offering activities, lesson plans, and related information. Included is a simulation of how members of the Constitutional Convention might have felt as they gathered in Philadelphia to write the United States Constitution. Students also analyze historic documents.

Lesson Plan – Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers
Presented by the National Archives and Records Administration, this lesson plan examines FDR’s attempt to add a Justice to the Supreme Court.

Teaching With Documents: Observing Constitution Day
The National Archives and Records Administration celebrates the signing of the Constitution by presenting activities, lesson plans, and information.

National Endowment for the Humanities: Constitution Day
The National Endowment for the Humanities invites you to take a few moments to read the United States Constitution carefully, to engage with its history, its content, its authors’ aspirations, and its lasting legacy. NEH has assembled documents, background essays, and a bibliography to help you celebrate and deepen your understanding of the United States Constitution.

The First Amendment: What’s Fair in a Free Country
This EDSITEment lesson plan explores the difficult issues that arise related to our right to free speech.

The First Amendment: The Preamble to the Constitution: How Do You Make a More Perfect Union?
This lesson plan is designed to use EDSITEment resources to help students understand why the Founders felt a need to establish a more perfect Union.

Annenburg Classroom
Annenburg classroom offers educational presentations on the Constitution including How Laws are Made and Understanding the Courts. These provide lessons and related video discussions by noted academics.

Student Voices is an Annenburg project that offers “Speak Outs” for students to join an online conversation about important constitutional questions.
Teaching the Constitution with the New York Times
The New York Times offers almost two-dozen lesson plans for teaching the Constitution with New York Times articles. They also provide an organizer for collecting articles, a fill-in First Amendment exercise, information on constitution related events and other resources. Here are select samples from their Lesson Plans on Constitutional Issues.

Studying the Constitution with the Times
A New York Times infused lesson plan whereby students find articles in the news that reflect freedoms outlined in the First Amendment to the Bill of Rights.
We the People
In this New York Times lesson plan students research constitutional issues that have both historic and modern connections and write articles for a class newspaper honoring Constitution Day.
Free Speech in School
In this New York Times lesson plan students explore their First Amendment rights via the Supreme Court case Frederick v. Morse and create a brochure illustrating their rights.
Preserve, Protect and Defend? Considering Violent Protests and American Values
In this New York Times lesson plan students explore if ever Americans should ever use threats and violence to promote and defend their definitions of America
Mixed Blessings: Exploring the Separation of Church and State in Patriotic Poetry
In this New York Times lesson, students will learn about the recent federal appeals court decision finding the Pledge of Allegiance unconstitutional. They then further investigate the notions of constitutionality and separation between church and state by researching and analyzing another patriotic American poem or song.
The Right and the Power
In this New York Times lesson students explore how the president and Congress made decisions about the war in Iraq and write letters to their representatives expressing their opinions on the issues.
Burning Hatred: Discussing the Constitutional Conflict Over Cross Burning
In this lesson, students examine the constitutionality of various forms of expression; they then take part in a mock trial on the issue of cross burning.
What Constitutes a State?
In this New York Times lesson students examine differences between various state constitutions in the United States and write a preamble and three articles for a constitution intended for their school or community.

On the Edge and Under the Gun
This middle school lesson will expose students to the issues of gun control, the right to bear arms, and the overwhelming seriousness of gun related violence. After exploring the complexities of this problem, students will then examine what can be done and what has been done to redress the situation using the Million Mom March as a reference point. Students will be required to synthesize web information on the topic in the form of a research paper.

PBS Constitution Day
Students are asked to create a mock constitution for their own government while the teacher observes how they go about organzing the drafting the document. They are then asked to reflect on their process, and compare it to the methods that the Founders used when writing the Constitution.

Ratifying the Constitution
In this EdSiteMent lesson plan, students debate the merits of the nascent U.S. Constitution. Select students will give speeches for and against the constitution in front of the class, acting as the state legislatures, who are tasked with assessing each side’s oratory persuasiveness.

The U.S. Constitution Power Grab Game
In this classroom activity students learn, among other things, how the “checks and balances” system functions to protect individual citizens.

Constitutional Convention Lesson Plan
Supplied by the Utah Education Network, this is a three-day lesson plan to help students understand the structure and function of the United States government established by the Constitution.

Celebrating the Constitution
This Scholastic News offering for kids provides a background article, classroom activities, online games, and additional resources.

The Constitution Tested: Nationalism and Sectionalism Practice Test
High school level quiz on Constitutional issues in American history from Prentice Hall. A second quiz covers different aspects of the Constitution.

The Constitution Tested: Document Based Essay Question
This Prentice Hall activity is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents and is based on the accompanying documents (1-6).

Is Everyone Protected By the Bill of Rights?
In this high school lesson plan, students explore whether gays should be entitled to serve in the military. To understand this issue, students take a look at the civil rights afforded to every US citizen. We explore how this applied to the civil rights movement, and whether it is also applicable to gays who want to serve in the military. All this is used to gather information for a final debate about the issue using skills and research found in the lesson.

HistoryTeacher.net: AP United States History Quizzes
A New York teacher has produced a great general site for history teachers that offers AP-level United States history quizzes on many different periods and topics.

AP United States History DBQs: 1775-1825
These student-created DBQs are part of the excellent Historyteacher.net site.

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